This site contains the South Australian Clinical Prioritisation Criteria (CPC) for most frequently referred urology conditions.

Urology conditions

Please note this is not an exhaustive list of all conditions for outpatient services and does not exclude consideration for referral unless specifically stipulated in the urology exclusions section.

Out of scope

Not all medical conditions are covered by the CPC, as certain conditions may be considered out of scope or managed by other specialist services:

  • angiolipoma – refer to nephrology
  • chronic testicular pain previously evaluated with urology – refer to chronic pain
  • common foreskin related conditions – refer to paediatric surgery
    • balanitis
    • foreskin adhesions
    • paraphimosis
    • phimosis
    • recurrent balanitis/posthitis
    • smegma cysts of foreskin/penis
  • Concerns of childhood non-accidental injury – refer to Child Protection Services for further information
  • disorders of sexual differentiation and urogenital developmental disorders – not included in CPC, still refer to urology as needed
  • hypogonadism – refer to endocrinology
  • incontinence associated with developmental delays or behavioural diagnosis (e.g. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or autism spectrum disorder) – assessment by occupational therapy and paediatric medicine prior to urology
  • microscopic haematuria – refer to nephrology
  • primary nocturnal enuresis - refer to paediatric medicine for children aged > 7 years old only, under 7 years do not require medical review
  • sexually transmitted infections – refer to Adelaide Sexual Health Centre
  • significant pelvic organ prolapse contributing to voiding symptoms, in particular procidentia - refer to gynaecology/urogynaecology
  • concerns of renal failure/declining estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or proteinuria - refer to nephrology

Exclusions for public specialist outpatient services

Not all urology conditions are appropriate for referral into the South Australian public health system. The following are not routinely provided in a public specialist outpatient service:

  • asymptomatic men with normal:
    • age-related prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and
    • digital rectal examination (DRE)
  • erectile dysfunction unrelated to surgical treatment for prostate or colorectal cancer
  • nephrocalcinosis
  • patients with an elevated PSA who have been fully investigated within the previous 12 months with negative results
  • Peyronie's disease
  • previously fully investigated hydronephrosis without obstruction or sinister pathologies detected without clinical and radiological progression
  • recurrent/persistent urinary tract infections less than 3 presentations per year in women
  • renal cyst Bosniak classification score type 1 and 2
  • specialist services in SA Health do not offer circumcision for cultural/religious reasons
  • uncomplicated LUTs in men without first line management treatment therapy
  • urinalysis positive for blood but midstream specimen urine (MSU) excludes haematuria
  • urinary tract calculi/stone less than 5mm

Emergency information

See the individual condition pages for more specific emergency information.


We welcome requests for further information or feedback on the CPC and website, please refer to the relevant form below.

Please email the completed form to


The Urology CPC is due for review for:

  • adult conditions in September 2025
  • paediatric conditions in July 2026

Evidence statement